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First Aliyah (1882-1903).

Approximately, 35,000 Jews immigrated to Palestine (then province of Ottoman Empire) during this time. The Hibbat Zion and Bilu movements coming from the Russian Empire provided the majority of these.
Aliyah ("ascent" or "going up") is Jewish immigration to the land of Israel. It is widely regarded as an important Jewish cultural concept and a fundamental concept of Zionism that is enshrined in Israel's Law of Return, which permits any Jew the legal right to assisted immigration and settlement in Israel, as well as automatic Israeli citizenship. A jew who makes aliyah is called an oleh (m.singular) or olah (f.singular), the plural for both is olim. Many Jews espouse aliyah as a return to the Promised Land, and regard it as the fulfillment of God's biblical promise to the descendants of the Hebrew patriarchs Abraham, Isaac, and Jacob(Israel). Aliyah is included as a commandment by some opinions on the enumeeration of the 613 commandments.

In Zionist discourse, the term aliyah (plural aliyot) includes both voluntary immigration for ideological, emotional, or practical reasons and, on the other hand, mass flight of persecuted populationsof Jews. The vast majority of Israeli Jews today trace their family's recent roots to outside of the country. While many have actively chosen to settle in Israel rather than some other country, many had little or no choice about leaving their previous home countries. While Israel is commonly recognized as "a contry of immigrants", it is also, in large measure, a country of refugees.

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